5 Main Sleep Disorders

Epileptic phenomena are characterized by repetitive stereotypical behavior, but may be clinically difficult to distinguish from non-epileptic phenomena. For most adults, the circadian rhythms that accompany their sleep-wake cycle and other bodily processes will be restored every 24 hours. The condition known as non-24-hour daydream disorder occurs when a person’s circadian cycle exceeds the 24-hour mark. These people often experience delays of one to two hours in their sleep-wake hours.

People with the second category of sleep disorders have a hard time staying awake during the day, even if they slept well the night before. But in many cases, a health condition like fibromyalgia, a thyroid problem, a disease like mononucleosis, obesity, or obstructive sleep apnea can make you sleepy. If you notice a coworker nodding in the middle of meetings, you may get narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that causes people to sleep uncontrollably at inappropriate times throughout the day. Narcolepsy is not only embarrassing, but it can also be dangerous if you nod behind the wheel of a car. Maybe you work the night shift at work, or you’re always traveling to different time zones and constantly battling jet lag.

Others have a medical problem such as sleep apnea or asthma, which gets in the way of their breathing and makes it difficult to stay asleep. In the morning, they are often irritable and have difficulty paying attention in class. Inadequate sleep hygiene, a common problem of patients with chronic insomnia, is classified in the ICSD-2 as a separate diagnosis of insomnia. Insomnia is characterized by recurrent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite motivation and the means to do so. People with insomnia also experience excessive daytime sleepiness and other cognitive impairments while awake. Insomnia is considered a chronic condition when patients show symptoms at least three times a week for at least three months.

Also uncommon are sleep maintenance problems in themselves that cause poor restful sleep due to OSA or abnormal behavior during sleep. These surprisingly abnormal sleep symptoms are usually clear from history. These conditions include NREM and REM parasomnias, sleep-related movement disorders (mainly restless leg syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder), and sleep-related epilepsy. NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders typically seen in the pediatric population and include confused excitations, sleepwalking, and sleep anxiety. REM parasomnias include nightmare disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder.

Diagnosing restless leg syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on avoiding the trigger and treating iron deficiency, if any. You crawl under the covers, turn off the lights and wait eight hours of happy sleep. But after hours of spinning, you’re still exhausted and no closer to sleep than when you first got into bed. The scenario I described, where you go around and around because you can’t fall asleep, is called insomnia. Another form of insomnia is when you wake up in the middle of the night and can’t fall asleep anymore. Sometimes people have a night or two of insomnia because they’re stressed by a big gathering at work, or because they’re excited about an upcoming trip.

A wide range of medical and psychological conditions can lead to EDS, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, chronic pain, depression and anxiety. Other causes include certain sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder. probeer het Sleep apnea is a common sleep-related breathing disorder that occurs due to upper airway obstruction. Like other sleep disorders, daytime sleep apnea can cause excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue, as well as various cognitive impairments.

Interdisciplinary collaboration is important for good patient outcomes in sleep disorders. Lack of sleep can lead to industrial or car accidents, decreased work performance and cognitive dysfunction. The prognosis of sleep disorders largely depends on the cause of the sleep disorder. Insomnia due to OSA usually disappears with treatment, while patients with chronic insomnia have an increased risk of depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life. Shift workers who have to work during the body’s usual sleep period, as determined by the endogenous circadian clock, often complain of insomnia in the morning after the night shift. Shiftwork disorder is usually evidenced by a careful assessment of the work schedule and usually disappears when the sleep period is restored to a conventional time.

People with this condition can sleep better if they are not in their own bed. Health care providers can treat chronic insomnia with a combination of using sedative-hypnotic medications or sedative antidepressants, along with behavioral techniques to promote regular sleep. In addition to insomnia, this group of disorders, including shift-based sleep disorder, jet lag disorders, and advanced sleep phase disorder, can also manifest with excessive daytime sleepiness.

The condition can also affect people who have experienced stroke, brain infection and other medical problems with the brainstem, as well as people taking narcotic painkillers and other sleep-inducing medications. CPAP therapy is often prescribed for CSA, although some patients find positive air pressure therapy with two levels more effective. Sleep disorders may not be fatal, but they affect your quality of life so often and so severely that they can change your thinking, weight, school/work performance, mental health, and your overall physical health. The most common ones like narcolepsy, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea prevent you from getting the long, deep sleep you need to function at your best. To determine if you have a sleep disorder, it’s important to pay attention to your sleep habits by keeping a sleep diary and discussing your sleep patterns and characteristics with your healthcare provider. Common sleep problems can be treated with behavioral treatments and increased attention to good sleep hygiene.

It can worsen conditions such as epilepsy or lead to problems such as chest pain or heart attack in people with coronary artery disease. Central sleep apnea can also be caused by problems regulating carbon dioxide.